The laboratory uses a variety of research techniques to examine the neural correlates underlying the regulation of arousal and motivated behavior. These include:

1) Fast scan cyclic voltammetry

2) Multi single unit electrophysiology

3) Self-administration techinques

4) Conditioned place preference

5) Locomotor activity monitoring

6) PCR, Westerns, Immunohistochemistry

7)Genetic models



Depiction of voltammetry processes using carbon fiber electrodes Cocaine effects measured using voltammetry in a freely moving mouse

Multi-Single Unit Recordings

Simultaneous recordings of multiple hippocampal cells using the Plexon system Perievent histograms depicting single cell activity prior to an operant response


Discrete trials schedules of reinforcement showing varying patterns of cocaine intake Threshold schedule of reinforcement showing consumption and unit price (Pmax)