Bruce E. Hirsch, Ph.D.
Associate Professor Department: Neurobiology and Anatomy
Specialty: 3D imaging and joint biomechanics
I received a B.S. in zoology from the University of Chicago in 1966, and a Ph.D. in Anatomy from the University of Pennsylvania in 1974. I was on the faculty of the Temple University School of Podiatric Medicine, formerly the Pennsylvania College of Podiatric Medicine, from 1976 to 2002. I have also held appointments at the University of Ibadan in Nigeria, and the Hebrew University-Hadassah Medical School in Jerusalem, Israel. Currently I am also an adjunct associate professor in the Department of Radiology of the University of Pennsylvania.
My primary responsibility is teaching first year medical students. In the past I have taught medical gross anatomy, lower extremity anatomy, embryology, and microscopic anatomy. I am currently involved in teaching gross and microscopic anatomy to medical students.
My main area of research is functional gross anatomy and biomechanics using three dimensional imaging techniques, primarily of the lower limb and cervical spine. My colleagues and I have developed methods for imaging the regions of interest in various positions through a joint’s range of motion, converting those image data to 3D, and computing and displaying the motions of the bones involved. In addition, I have also used other means for investigating the functional anatomy of the limb.
Hirsch, B.E., Udupa, J.K., and Roberts, D. Three-dimensional reconstruction of the foot from computed tomography scans. J. Am. Pod. Med. Assoc. 79: 384-394 (1989).
Hirsch, B.E., Udupa, J.K., Gonçalves, R.J., and Roberts, D. Kinematics of joints of the foot via three-dimensional magnetic resonance images. Proceedings of the First Conference on Visualization in Biomedical Computing, pp. 232-237. Los Alamitos, CA: IEEE Computer Society Press (1990).
Hirsch, B.E. Structural biomechanics of the foot bones. J. Am. Pod. Med. Assoc. 81: 338-343 (1991).
Udupa, J.K., Hirsch, B.E., Samarasekera, S., and Gonçalves, R.J. Joint kinematics via three-dimensional MR imaging. In: (Robb, R.A., ed.) Proceedings of the Second Conference on Visualization in Biomedical Computing, SPIE 1808, pp. 664-670. Bellingham, WA: SPIE (1992).
Udupa, J.K., Hirsch, B.E., Samarasekera, S., and Goncalves, R.J. Kinematics of joints via three-dimensional MR imaging. In: (Morucci, J.P., Plonsey, R., Coatrieux, J.L., and Laxminarayan, S., eds.) Proceedings of the Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society, Vol. 14, pp. 2059-2060 (1992).
Hirsch, B.E., Udupa, J.K., and Samarasekera, S. A new method of studying joint kinematics from 3D MRI data. J. Am. Pod. Med. Assoc. 86: 4-15 (1996).
Falcao, A. X., Udupa, J. K., Samarasekera, S., and Hirsch, B.E. User-steered image boundary segmentation. Medical Imaging 1996: Image Processing, pp. 278-288 (1996).
Hirsch, B.E., Udupa, J.K., Mahan, K.T., Bauer, G.R., Hillstrom, H.J., and Kneeland, J.B. A new method of kinematic analysis of joints. In: (E.A. Hoffman, ed.) Medical Imaging 1997: Physiology and Function from Multidimensional Images. SPIE 3033, pp. 361-367 (1997).
Falcão, A.X., Udupa, J.K., Samarasekera, S., Sharma, S., Hirsch, B.E., and Lotufo, R.A. User-steered image segmentation paradigms: Live wire and live lane. Graph. Models Image Proc. 60: 233-260 (1998).
Stindel, E., Udupa, J.K. Hirsch, B.E., Odhner, D., and Couture, C. 3D morphology of the rear foot from MRI data: technical validation and clinical description. Medical Imaging 1998: Image Display, SPIE 3335, pp. 479-487 (1998).
Udupa, J.K., Hirsch, B.E., Hillstrom, H.J., Bauer, G.R., and Kneeland, J.B. Analysis of in vivo 3-D internal kinematics of joints of the foot. IEEE Transac. Biomed. Eng. 45: 1387-1396 (1998).
Stindel, E., Udupa, J.K., Hirsch, B.E., Odhner, D., and Couture, C. 3D MR analysis of the morphology of the rearfoot. Application to classification of bones. Comp. Med. Imaging Graph. 23: 75-83 (1999).
Stindel, E., Udupa, J.K., Hirsch, B.E., and Odhner, D. 3D analysis of the peritalar complex using MR imaging in live patients. Medical Imaging 1999: Physiology and Function from Multidimensional Images. SPIE 3660, pp. 500-511 (1999).
Stindel, E., Udupa, J.K., Hirsch, B.E., and Odhner, D. A characterization of the geometric architecture of the peritalar joint complex via MRI: An aid to the classification of foot type. IEEE Trans. Med Imaging. 18: 753-763 (1999).
Ledoux, W.R., Hirsch, B.E., Church, T., and Caunin, M. Pennation angles of the intrinsic muscles of the foot. J. Biomechanics 34: 399-403 (2001).
Stindel, E., Udupa, J.K., Hirsch, B.E., and Odhner, D. An in vivo analysis of the motion of the peri-talar joint complex based on MR imaging. IEEE Transac. Biomed. Eng. 48: 236-247 (2001).
Woodburn, J., Udupa, J.K., Hirsch, B.E., Wakefield, R.J., Helliwell, P.S., Reay, M., O’Connor, P., Budgen, A., and Emery, P. The geometric architecture of the subtalar and midtarsal joints in rheumatoid arthritis based on magnetic resonance imaging, Arthritis Rheum, 46: 3168-3177 (2002).
Saha, P., Udupa, J.K., and Hirsch, B.E., Iso-shaping Rigid Bodies for estimating their motion from image sequences. Medical Imaging 2002: Image Processing, SPIE 4684: 343-352 (2002).
Nystroem, I., Udupa, J.K., Grevera, G.J., and Hirsch, B.E. Area of and volume enclosed by digital and triangulated surfaces. Medical Imaging 2002: Visualization, Image-Guided Procedures, and Display, Proc. SPIE 4681: 669-680 (2002).
Liu, J., Udupa, J.K., Saha, P.K., Odhner, P.K., Hirsch, B.E., and Siegler, S. Model-based 3D segmentation of the bones of the ankle and subtalar joints in MR images. SPIE 5032: 1650-1657 (2003).
Saha, P.K., Udupa, J.K., Falcão, A.X., Hirsch, B.E., and Siegler, S. Iso-shaping rigid bodies for estimating their motion from image sequences. IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging, 23: 63-72 (2004).
Udupa, J.K., Siegler, S., Hirsch, B.E., Ringleb, S.I., Okereke, E., Roach, N., Imhauser, C.W., Odhner, D., Liu, J., and Saha, P.K. 3D stress MRI for studying the functional pathologies of the ankle complex. Medical Imaging 2004: Physiology, Function, and Structure from Medical Images, Proc. SPIE 5369: 722-729 (2004).
Siegler, S., Udupa, J,K., Ringleb, S.I., Imhauser, C.W., Hirsch, B.E., Odhner, D. Saha, P.K., Okereke, E., and Roach, N. Mechanics of the ankle and subtalar joints revealed through a 3D quasi-static stress MRI technique. J. Biomech., 38: 567-578 (2005).
Ringleb, S.I., Udupa, J.K., Siegler, S., Imhauser, C.W., Hirsch, B.E., Liu, J., Odhner, D., Saha, P.K., Okereke, E., Roach, N. The effect of ankle ligament damage and surgical reconstructions on the mechanics of the ankle and subtalar joints revealed by three dimensional stress MRI (3D sMRI). J. Orthop. Res. 23: 743-749 (2005).
Liu, J., Udupa, J.K., Saha, P.K., Odhner, D., Hirsch, B.E., Siegler, S., Simon, S., Winkelstein, B.A.
Model-based 3D segmentation of the bones of joints in medical images. Proceedings of SPIE: Medical Imaging, Volume 5747, pp. 1793-1803 (2005).
Udupa, J.K., Leblanc, V.R., Zhuge. Y., Imielinska, C., Schmidt, H., Currie, L.M., Hirsch, B.E., and Woodburn, J. A framework for evaluating image segmentation algorithms. Comput. Med. Imaging Graph. 30:75-87 (2006).
Liu, J.K., Udupa, J.K., Saha, P.K., Odhner, D., Hirsch, B.E., Siegler, S., Simon, S., and Winkelstein, B.A. Rigid model-based 3D segmentation of the bones of joints in MR and CT images for motion analysis. Med. Phys. 35: 3637-3649 (2008).
Waligora, A.C., Johanson, N.A., and Hirsch, B.E. Clinical anatomy of quadriceps femoris and the extensor apparatus of the knee. Clin. Orthop. Rel. Res. 467: 3297- 3306 (2009).
Hirsch, B.E., Udupa, J.K., Siegler, S., and Winkelstein, B.A. The application of 3D image processing to studies of the musculoskeletal system in (Liu, J., Doi, K., Fenster, A, and Chaan, S.C., eds.) MIPPR 2009: Medical Imaging, Parallel Processing of Images, and Optimization Techniques, edited by Jianguo Liu, Kunio Doi, Aaron Fenster, S. C. Chan, Proceedings of SPIE Vol. 7497: 74971B-1 – 74971B-6. Bellingham, WA: SPIE (2009).
Nyström, I., Grevera, G., Hirsch, B.E., and Udupa, J.K. Efficient computation of enclosed volume and surface area from the same triangulated surface representation. Comp. Med. Imaging Graph. 35: 460-471 (2011).
Hirsch, B.E. [Viewpoint Article] Does the Terminologia Anatomica Really Matter? Clin. Anat.24: 503-504 (2011).